Medical research regularly uses mice to test out hypotheses. And usually, those mice are dead. But some really exciting research out of Johns Hopkins has found a new way to study the neuroscience of mice–by peeking into their brains while they’re still alive. Yep, you heard that right–researchers were able to observe the mice brains with such precision that they could see how proteins changed when the mice formed new memories. In real time. That’s nuts.